Fitness (English fitness, from the verb "to fit" - to fit, to be in good shape; there is also a Russian spelling with a double "c" - fitness) - a type of physical activity that is aimed at maintaining overall physical shape, achieved through proper nutrition, rest and moderate physical activity. In a broader sense - the general physical fitness of the human body


  • Physical fitness consists of the following elements:
  • preparedness of the cardiovascular system;

  • flexibility;
  • muscle endurance;
  • power;
  • power;
  • development of a sense of balance;
  • good coordination of movements [1];
  • reaction;
  • rapidity;
  • the ratio of muscle and adipose tissue in the body.
  • Fitness history

1. Prehistoric times

The origin of the word "fitness" in English: "fitness" means "fit", "fitness", "fitness". This term appeared in the 70s of the last century in America. But the history of fitness is actually thousands of years old. Even primitive man, good physical shape helped them to survive - to get food and protect themselves from wild animals. Ancient people did fitness unconsciously. Life forced them to jump, run, squat, bend over. Rock and cave paintings of that era depict human figures that not only move or dance, but also throw spears, clubs, boomerangs - so men, to become good hunters, developed dexterity, accuracy and strength. And the last drawings of those times depict competitions between different tribes and the awarding of winners. With the development of animal husbandry and agriculture, people have appeared helpers, ranging from animals to various tools. But I still had to work a lot, so people were healthy and hardy. Fitness continued its development in ancient civilizations. Physical activity was associated with well-being; it was believed that someone who works a lot is not sick and lives well.

2. Antique times

The history of the emergence of fitness is inextricably linked with ancient Greece. For the Hellenes, the development of the body, along with music and education, was of great importance. Going in for sports, the ancient Greeks strove to achieve the unity of external beauty and internal harmony. Society idealized a person who was comprehensively developed, a person who is both a thinker and an athlete at the same time. The spread of fitness was promoted by Greek doctors, philosophers and scientists. Hippocrates was an unsurpassed rider, Pythagoras was a famous fist-fighter, and Socrates, Plato, Sophocles and Euripides constantly received prizes for participating in various competitions. Already in those days, gymnastics was practised in specially designated places. Ancient Greek baths were whole complexes where one could not only practice, but also relax, visit a bathhouse, and chat with friends. The Hercules Caves in the south of the Peloponnesian Peninsula are considered the prototype of the fitness rooms: in them, archaeologists discovered the first "simulators" - primitive stone devices, which are almost 3 thousand years old. It is impossible not to mention the fitness programs that existed in Athens, Sparta, the Persian Empire. To become good soldiers, boys from wealthy families were required to attend gyms. But the same was demanded by women: to maintain attractiveness and give birth to healthy offspring, they had to monitor their physical shape. The next page in the history of fitness is competition, which was very popular in Olympia in the 8th-4th centuries BC. e. The Olympic Games had such a strong influence on society that wars were sometimes suspended to hold them. The competition included competitions in fist fighting, wrestling, running, discus and javelin throwing, jumping, and chariot riding.

Ancient Roman civilization

In the Roman Empire, competitions of this kind became very popular a little later, in the 2nd century BC. e. And in other years, the population was encouraged to play sports, but only the military was obliged to do physical exercises. This, of course, helped the Romans to conquer almost the entire Western world, but gradually the accumulation of material wealth and all kinds of entertainment became a priority for the population. The extravagance led to the gradual decline of Roman civilization. Interestingly, the barbarian tribes that defeated the largest power of the ancient world had physical superiority over the Romans, although they did not attend the gym.

The philosophical teachings of Confucius

Great importance was attached to a healthy body in the East as well, however, they strove not so much for physical perfection as for the development of spirituality. The philosophical teachings of Confucius, which called for physical activity, contributed to the emergence of Chinese kung fu gymnastics. Ancient China also practised dancing, badminton, archery, fencing and wrestling. In neighbouring India, in the middle of the 3rd century, BC. e. yoga appeared. Exercises in this ancient form of fitness, like in kung fu, imitate the movements of animals: communicating with nature


  • Directions

  • Pylon gymnastics

  • Fitness on rollers

  • Water aerobics

  • Nordic walking

  • Crossfit
  • Fitball

  • Fitbox

  • Pilates

  • Zumba aerobics

Children's fitness, Hollywood

Oriental Wisdom - Eastern spiritual, meditative and martial practices are the basis of many modern health-improving activities. This is the harmonious development and improvement of the body, spirit and correct breathing. Physical exercise can be combined with meditation and breathing exercises.

Yoga is a popular form of fitness that came to us from Indian teachings. Performing asanas has a beneficial effect on coordination and the musculoskeletal system. However, in the case of spinal problems, the trainer must carefully work out the program for the student to avoid aggravating the problem. This type of modern fitness is effective in dealing with stress.

The Great Limit (Taiji) - Chinese gymnastics, popular in the Middle Kingdom, are based on spiritual practices and the foundations of martial arts. This type of fitness is recommended for people of all ages. She is beautiful, restores joint mobility, develops discipline.

Kalari Payattu is another increasingly popular non-traditional fitness activity, which is based on a combat Indian practice that harmonizes body and spirit.

Budokon (Budokan) is a type of physical activity that has gained popularity in Hollywood and since 2004 has been actively promoted by athletes and movie stars. It is also a complex of martial techniques, meditative practices and breathing exercises from yoga and martial arts.

Choreography - Effective exercises from the training curriculum for dancers and ballet dancers have long since been blended with physical education expertise, creating fitness that is attractive to women. Here you can find echoes of street dance, Latin, classical school and even oriental dance.

Baylotherapy is a type of fitness that will be appreciated by all Latin American dancers. Venezuelan incendiary melodies will accompany dance and aerobic exercises. Impossible to resist, recommended for children.

Cardiostrip is dance fitness classes for women who want not only to lose weight and restore muscle tone but also to develop grace and sexuality. In addition to movements typical for aerobics, the complex includes elements of strip plastic.

Cardio workouts - these directions of popular fitness will help to strengthen the cardiovascular system, increase endurance and efficient expenditure of extra calories. Most often, classes are conducted in groups using rhythmic music.

Bodyflex is a complex of simple breathing exercises using the diaphragm, the task of which is to saturate the tissues with oxygen by holding the breath, followed by a sharp and rapid exhalation. The purpose of body flex is to lose weight and improve muscle tone.

Pole dance, [2]) - exercises on a pole, a mixture of erotic dance and elements of artistic gymnastics, aimed at strengthening all muscle groups. The World Championships are held in half-dance.

Step aerobics is a type of aerobics using a special step platform, which allows you to perform basic movements, coupled with steps and jumps on it and through it in different directions. Step aerobics is great for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and arthritis, as well as for strengthening leg muscles and recovering from knee injuries.

Fitness roller skating. Vigorous rollerblading burns more calories than running (an average of 374 calories for running versus 425 for rollerblades in 30 minutes) [3]. The load on the joints and spine when roller skating is much less.

Aqua aerobics is a type of fitness that involves performing physical exercises in water with musical accompaniment and combining loads on all the main muscle groups of a person, which is due to the high efficiency of training.


Pump aerobics - strength training using a mini-barbell "barbell". In a pump-aerobics class, all exercises are performed at a high pace to the music. Dance elements are excluded; instead, various presses, inclines, squats are used. When performing these exercises, all muscle groups are worked out.

Kick aerobics-combined modern fitness trends are ready to combine effective techniques. As an example, this direction: Tai-bo, skipping rope and strength exercises. Not only muscles are being pumped, but the lungs and the cardiovascular system are also working hard.

BOSU is a relatively new type of fitness (dates back to 1999 [4]). It got its name from the sports equipment "BOSU balance trainer", shaped like a half of a rubber ball (hemisphere). This type of inventory got its name from the acronym "BOth Sides Up" [5] - it means "use of both sides". This sports equipment can be used from two sides: a hemisphere up or down. The exercises are performed on an unstable surface, which is very effective. A lesson at BOSU resembles step aerobics - there are many similar exercises, but there is no complex choreography on them