Public health.

 Public health

Public health is "the science and art that undermines the public health analysis of public health analysis" (1920, CEA Winslow)'s public health analysis based on the systematic efforts of communities, organizations, public and private entities, communities and individuals through systematic efforts and informed choices through disease and advancement.

Table of Contents

1 Distinctive feature

2 Objectives

3 Health care between developed and developing countries

4 Modern Public Health

4.1 Public Health

4.2 Public health programs

4.3 Weaknesses in health care in many countries

4.4 References

4.5 External links

Distinctive features

There are two distinctive features of public health:

     1-It has to do with prevention rather than health care.

     2-It relates to population levels rather than individual health issues.

The focus of public health interventions is on prevention, rather than on the treatment of a disease, by monitoring the condition and promoting healthy behaviours. In addition to these activities, it may be important to prevent the disease in many situations, such as during an outbreak. Washing hands; Vaccination programs and the distribution of condoms are examples of public health programs. The goal of public health is to save lives by preventing and treating diseases. The United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not just disease or old age."


The focus of public health interventions is on prevention, rather than on the treatment of a disease, by monitoring the condition and promoting healthy behaviours. In addition to these activities, treating the disease in situations such as infection or contamination of food or water supply may be important to prevent the spread of the disease. Vaccination programs and the distribution of condoms are examples of public health programs.

Most countries have their own public health agencies to respond to domestic health issues. These agencies are sometimes known as the Ministry of Health. In the United States, state and local health departments are at the forefront of public health initiatives. The United States Public Health Service (PHS), headed by the United States Director of Public Health, and the Department of Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, is involved in many national health activities in addition to their national responsibilities.

Public health.

Healthcare between developed and developing countries

There is a huge gap between developed and developing countries in terms of access to health care and public health initiatives. In developing countries, public health infrastructure is still in shambles. There is a lack of adequately trained health workers or financial resources to provide basic medical care and prevention. As a result, much of the disease and death in developing countries result from extreme poverty. For example, many African governments spend less than $ 10 per person per year on health care, but in the United States, the federal government spent an estimated $ 4,500 per person in 2000. Many diseases are simple and effective. It can be prevented through non-medical means. For example, research shows that simple behaviours, such as hand washing, can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In the developing world and in developed countries, public health plays an important role in prevention efforts through local health systems and international non-governmental organizations.

The two major postgraduate degrees related to this field are the Master of Public Health (MPH) or (more rarely) the PhD in Public Health (DrPH). Many public health researchers have doctorates (PhDs) in their speciality, and some public health programs offer equivalent doctoral degrees in science.

Modern Public Health

Throughout the 20th century, as the spread of infectious diseases in the developed world declined, public health began to focus more on chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. The emphasis on physical activity is revived. In the United States, Dr Sara Josephine Baker, a public health worker in the United States, has used preventive measures to reduce child mortality. She started a series of programs in New York City for the health of poor children. Dr Baker led a team of nurses to the crowded neighbourhoods of Hell's Kitchen to teach mothers how to dress their children. He taught them to feed and bathe. After World War I, many countries followed her example to reduce child mortality. It is widely believed that the rapid increase in average life expectancy during the 20th century was due to the achievements of public health. These achievements include immunization programs and disease control; Safety policies such as motor vehicle and workplace safety; Improved family planning; Adding fluoride compound to drinking water; Smoking cessation programs and programs to reduce chronic diseases. During this time the developing world continued to suffer from widespread preventable infectious diseases, exacerbated by malnutrition and poverty. Front-page headlines continue to cover the public health issues facing society daily: emerging diseases such as SARS, which spread from China to Canada and the United States (see Public Health in China); Prescription drug benefits under public programs such as Medicare; HIV-AIDS among young women of the opposite sex is on the rise and is spreading in South Africa. Increased childhood obesity and an increase in type II diabetes in children; The effects of adolescent pregnancy and the ongoing social and economic impact of the 2004 tsunami and 2005 Hurricane Katrina Economic and health disasters. All of these are ongoing public health challenges.

Public Health

The field of public health, which has been growing since the early 1980s, has shifted its focus from public health to individual misconduct and risk factors. It extends to community issues such as poverty and education. Public health today is often about talking about what determines health in a society, rather than advocating for individual behaviour change. Our health depends on where we live. Genetics, our income, It is recognized that several fundamental factors, including our educational status and our social interactions, are known as "health social decisions".

Public health.

The rate of social change in health is impacting society; The poorest people generally suffer from the worst health conditions. However, most people in the middle class generally have worse health outcomes than most people in higher classes. The new public health seeks and names health inequalities by advocating for a more equitable policy that promotes health more equitably.

Public health programs

This 1963 poster features the CDC's national symbol for public health, the "healthy bee." The public is encouraged to accept polio vaccination.

Today, public funding for public health is generally significantly lower than for medicines, but the incidence and severity of the disease are high. Most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in mitigating the effects of disability and old age. In recent years, vaccinated public health programs have made incredible strides in improving health, including eradicating measles, a disease that has plagued mankind for thousands of years.

One of the most important public health issues facing the world right now is the immunodeficiency virus (HIV / AIDS). Antibiotic resistance is another major concern, leading to the recurrence of diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). Another important public health concern is diabetes. In 2006, the World Health Organization estimated that 171 million people worldwide had diabetes. The number of such incidents is growing rapidly and is projected to double by 2030.

Controversy over public health is controlling smoking. Non-communicable diseases caused by smoking pose a threat to public health. This is because communicable diseases only take a short time to improve, and unlike that, a long-term strategy is needed to improve non-communicable diseases. This is because communicable diseases are at the top of the global health priorities, while non-communicable diseases are at the bottom of the global health priorities. The global health system needs to find a way to balance communicable and non-communicable diseases. These health problems are within the constraints of the private sector, and they will benefit almost always by being involved in our global health issues. At the same time, many decisions about health problems are made by industries that focus on technical solutions.

Weaknesses in health practices in many countries

Governments of all nations need to focus more on pre-planned solutions, rather than relying on private individuals working for their own benefit. At the same time, global health policy-making is shorter than industrial and trade policies. It works in partnership with businesses, thus reducing the barriers needed for effective regulation and standardization at the national and global levels. Many countries are implementing tax increases as a primary initiative to reduce smoking and ban smoking in some or all public places. Evidence suggests that smoking is one of the leading causes of death in all developed countries.

Public health.

Governments, therefore, have a responsibility to reduce mortality by restricting secondhand smoke to smokers and giving smokers less chance to smoke. Opponents say this undermines individual liberty and personal responsibilities (the term "child protection" is often used in Britain); They fear the country will be like a police force to remove more options under the name of better public health. However, infecting other people with secondhand smoke is not a human right. Proponents of her case have been working to make the actual transcript of this statement available online. There is a link between public health and animal-to-human transmission of animal-related diseases, as well as animal-related animal and public health.